Dr Andrew Klein is a Cardiothoracic Anaesthetist and Chair of the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

He is the Editor-in-Chief of Anaesthesia, and is on the Board and Council of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. He is an examiner at the Royal College of Anaesthetists and sits on the Board and Council of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia (NIAA). He is also a member of the research committee for the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA).

Dr Klein is the lead anaesthetist for interventional procedures in the cardiac catheter laboratory and is also the Clinical Lead for the pulmonary endarterectomy (PTE) service. His main research area is pre-operative anaemia and the effects of iron replacement therapy.



Cardiothoracic anaesthesia and intensive care.

Specialist Clinical Interests

Blood transfusion. Transoesophageal echocardiography.

Research Interests

Blood conservation and cell salvage.

Dr Klein is Chair of the following Working Parties writing new National Guidelines: Transfusion (April 2015), Cell Salvage (September 2016) and Jehovah’s Witnesses (February 2017). Is is on the Board and Council of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia in the UK and the Grant Committee of the College of Anaesthetists of Australia and New Zealand. He was awarded a £2.5 million grant for and is Principal Investigator for a major International study on intravenous iron called ITACS, recruiting 1000 patients worldwide from 2017 to 2019. Papworth is one of 10 UK centres and one of 30 worldwide. He is the  NIHR CRN Eastern Sub-specialty lead for Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Education and Training


Current membership(s) of professional, national and regional bodies and university posts

Royal College of Anaesthetists, Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, British society of echocardiography. 

Dr Klein is also a Fellow of Murray Edwards College, University of Cambridge, and their tutor/lecturer in Pharmacology.


Dr Klein has published > 150 peer-reviewed articles, editorials and reviews, with an h-index of 30 and an i-index of 58.


His publications are available at Google Scholar


Blaudszun G, Munting KE, Butchart A, Gerrard C, Klein AA. The association between borderline pre-operative anaemia in women and outcomes after cardiac surgery: a cohort study. Anaesthesia 2018: doi:10.1111/anae.14185
Zochios V, Klein AA, Jones N, Gao F. Intra-operative mechanical ventilation strategies in cardiac surgical patients. Journal of the Intensive Care Society 2018; 19: 85.

Pandit JJ, Klein AA. Journal response: prospective clinical trial registration – desirable, but not necessary. Anaesthesia 2018: doi:10.1111/anae.14198

Zochios V, Klein AA, Gao F. Protective invasive ventilation in cardiac surgery: a systematic review with a focus on acute lung injury in adult cardiac surgical patients. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2018; http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2017.10.031 

Shepherd SJ, Klein A, Martinez G. Enhanced recovery for thoracic surgery in the elderly. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2017, 30:000–000. DOI:10.1097/ACO.0000000000000537

Sullivan TP, Moore JE, Klein AA, et al. Evaluation of the clinical utility of echocardiography and invasive monitoring to assess right ventricular function During and after pulmonary endarterectomy. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2018; 32: 771-8.

Blaudszun G, Butchart A, Klein AA. Blood conservation in cardiac surgery. Transfusion Medicine 2017. doi:10.1111/tme.12475

Papachristofi O, Klein AA, Mackay J, et al. Effect of individual patient risk, centre, surgeon and anaesthetist on length of stay in hospital after cardiac surgery: Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Critical Care (ACTACC) consecutive cases series study of 10 UK specialist centres.BMJ Open 2017; 7: e016947.

Zochios V, Jones N, Klein AA. Rationale and design of a prospective cohort study to assess extravascular lung water as an early predictor and marker of the severity of reperfusion lung injury in pulmonary endarterectomy. Research in Cardiovascular Medicine 2017; e59348. DOI: 10.5812/cardiovascmed.59348.

Klein AA, Collier T, Yeates J, et al. The ACTA PORT-score for predicting perioperative risk of blood transfusion for adult cardiac surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2017; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aex205

Bartoszko,Vorobeichik l, Klein AA et al. Defining clinically important perioperative blood loss and transfusion for the standardised endpoints for perioperative medicine (StEP) collaborative: a protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e016743. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016743

Axell R, Giblett J, Klein A, et al. Stunning and Right Ventricular Dysfunction is Induced by Coronary Balloon Occlusion and Rapid Pacing in Humans: Insights from Right Ventricular Conductance Catheter Studies. Journal of the American Heart Association 2017; 6: e005820. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.117.005820.

Muñoz M, Acheson AG, Klein AA, et al. International consensus statement on the peri-operative management of anaemia and iron deficiency. Anaesthesia 2017; 72: 233–47.

Meybohm P, Froessler B, Klein AA, et al. Simplified international recommendations for the implementation of patient blood management. Perioperative Medicine 2017; 6: 5. DOI: 10.1186/s13741-017-0061-8.

Chau M, Richards T, Klein AA. The UK Cardiac and Vascular surgery Interventional Anaemia Response (CAVIAR) Study: protocol for an observational cohort study to determine the impact and effect of preoperative anaemia management in cardiac and vascular surgical patients. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e014872.

 Tan WS, Lamb B, Klein AA, et al. Transfusion requirement and not preoperative anaemia is associated with perioperative complications following intracorporeal robotic assisted radical cystectomy. Journal of Endourology 2017; 31: 141-8.

Axell RG, White P, Klein AA, et al. Rapid pacing induced right ventricular dysfunction is evident after balloon expandable trans-femoral aortic valve replacement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2017; 69: DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.011.

Butcher A, Richards T, Stanworth SJ, Klein AA. Diagnostic criteria for pre-operative anaemia–time to end sex discrimination. Anaesthesia 2017; 72: 811–4.

Irons JF, Miles LF, Joshi KR, Klein AA, Scarci M, Solli P, Martinez G. Thoracic Anesthesia Intubated Versus Nonintubated General Anesthesia for Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery—A Case-Control Study. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2017; 31: 411-7.

 Klein AA. What Anaesthesia is doing to combat scientific misconduct and investigate data fabrication and falsification. Anaesthesia 2017; 72: 3–4. 

Chand M, Lamagni T, Klein AA, et al. Insidious risk of severe Mycobacterium chimaera infection in cardiac surgery patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2017; 64: 335-42.